Safeguard G Detail

Content with Safeguard G G2 times .


Actions to reduce the risk of displacement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from REDD+ include:

  • Implementing REDD+ at a national scale through the National REDD+ Programme;
  • Analysing risk of displacement and selecting and designing of REDD+ policies and measures taking into consideration the risk of GHG emissions displacement (including risk of displacement to other ecosystems, e.g. through draining of peatlands for agricultural use);
  • Designing and selecting policies and measures that address the underlying and indirect drivers of deforestation and land use change rather than only addressing direct drivers at specific locations, as well as assessment, clarification and resolution of land use arrangements in the intervention areas;
  • Taking actions to reduce displacement of GHG emissions from REDD+ policies and measures at the subnational scale, taking into account the potential impacts of REDD+ policies and measures on livelihoods as well as the demand for and supply of forest and agricultural;
  • Regional actions on transboundary displacement issues, such as regional collaboration on REDD+ to ensure coherence in REDD+ implementation by various countries; and
  • Designing and operating a National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) designed to contribute to detecting and providing information on displacement at national and subnational levels; as well as analysing possible reasons for displacement of GHG emissions, such as ineffective implementation of REDD+ policies and measures, or REDD+ policies and measures that are not designed to address underlying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.

The scope of Viet Nam’s National REDD+ Programme (2017) is national: ‘This programme is to be implemented across the country, with priority given to hot spots of deforestation and forest degradation, and regions affected by climate change, as well as areas having the greatest potential for forest carbon stock enhancement’ [1].

As of March 2018, 19 of Viet Nam’s 63 provinces and centrally-administered cities have approved Provincial REDD+ Action Plans:

Provincial REDD+ Action Plans (PRAPs) approved as of March 2018

Province

Date Approved

Current Phase

Bắc Kạn

6/2016

2015-2020

Bình Thuận

6/2016

2016-2020

Cà Mau

4/2016

2016-2020

Đăk Nông

1/2017

2016-2020

Điện Biên

8/2017 (revised version)

2013-2020

Hà Giang

7/2017

2017-2020

Hà Tĩnh 

6/2016

2016-2020

Hoà Bình

9/2017

2017-2020

Kon Tum

8/2017

2017-2020

Lai Châu

9/2017

2017-2020

Lâm Đồng

1/2015

2015-2020

Lào Cai

6/2016

2016-2020

Nghệ An

6/2016

2016-2020

Phú Thọ

6/2017

2017-2020

Quảng Bình

4/2016

2016-2020

Quảng Ngãi

1/2018

2018-2020

Sơn La

8/2017

2017-2020

Thanh Hóa

December 2016

2016-2020

Thừa Thiên Huế

December 2016

2016-2020

 

[1] NRAP 2017, Decision No 419/QD-TTg dated 5/4/2017.


Environmental and social co-benefits and risks of the National REDD+ Programme (NRAP)[1] policies and measures were assessed in 2017, and co-benefit enhancement and risk mitigation measures identified. This includes a number of risks related to displacement of drivers of deforestation and degradation, and greenhouse gas emissions, such as:

  • Risks of conversion of natural non-forest habitats, negatively impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services, soil carbon stocks and ecological connectivity;
  • Potential loss of productive assets, access or use rights to forests/forestry lands, increasing conflicts related to land tenure/land use and negatively impacting on livelihoods;
  • Investments, incentives and potential higher markets prices in agriculture could make crop production more effective/attractive and contribute to deforestation over the long term or at scale; and
  • Reforestation, and increased plantation cover and quality could lead to displacement of other land uses into forest areas

Measures suggested during this assessment to enhance the co-benefits of REDD+ and reduce risks related to displacement include the following:

  • Conservation and protection of natural forests in land use planning processes, should be prioritised, along with applying strategic environmental assessment in land use and sectoral planning, and ensuring that decision-support tools for REDD+ incorporate biodiversity and ecosystem service values.
  • Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for land use planning processes should be systematised and improved, to avoid/reduce conversion of natural non-forest habitats important for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, or areas with high soil carbon stocks (e.g. peatlands).
  • Integrated land use planning and associated processes (e.g. SEA) should integrate social parameters to avoid/mitigate access and uses restrictions and loss of productive assets and livelihoods. Special attention should be given to the inclusion of the poorest communities, ethnic minorities and gender issues.
  • Green financial mechanisms should include clear environmental safeguards such as criteria and procedures for screening proposed investments, conducting due diligence checks and monitoring.
  • To reduce forest conversion to agriculture, a monitoring and traceability system should be developed and implemented on pilot sites, complemented by strengthening the monitoring and enforcement of land use plans in priority hotspots of commodity-driven deforestation.
  • Access to credit and other livelihood support should be improved, such as on/off farm livelihood improvements, allowing households to invest more resources in natural forest protection and restoration.
  • There should be strengthened forest law enforcement and monitoring in hot spots of forest degradation and deforestation to ensure respect of negotiated agreements with beneficiaries.
  • Practical guidelines for afforestation/reforestation and plantation management at site-level should be developed, including site/species selection, plantation design, pest control, fire prevention, etc., and consideration of existing land uses in site selection, including assessment of displacement risk.
  • Sustainable forest management practices and certification for plantations should be promoted through access improvement to advisory services.

The national guidelines for the development of Provincial REDD+ Action Plans also provide direction on environmental and social benefit and risk assessment of the REDD+ polices and measures set out in these plans[2]. Assessments of environmental and social benefits and risks of REDD+ policies and measures, in specific sub-national locations, have also been carried out through the Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) during the development of the FCPF Emission Reductions Program in the North-Central Coast Region of Viet Nam, and through the assessment of Environmental and Social Considerations for the Project for Sustainable Forest Management in the Northwest Watershed Area (SUSFORM-NOW) funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

The ER Program in the North-Central Coast Region of Viet Nam has identified risks of displacement and design features to mitigate these risks. The key risks identified include: planned conversion of forest to agricultural land (e.g. for rubber plantations); unplanned conversion of forest to agriculture (e.g. through shifting cultivation); planned and unplanned conversion of natural forest to planted forest; planned and unplanned conversion of forest due to infrastructure development (e.g. hydropower dams); and unsustainable legal and illegal selective logging for commercial and subsistence purposes, both nationally and internationally (displacement to mainly Lao PDR and Cambodia).

Mitigation strategies to address these risks include: support for policies restricting conversion of forests; participatory land-use planning through the ER Program’s Adaptive and Collaborative Management Approach (ACMA); ER Program investments in productions forests, benefit-sharing and sustainable agriculture to support livelihoods; close monitoring of the possible conversion of natural forests to plantations; development of land use plans for infrastructure development to minimise conversion of natural forests; collaborative management approaches to reduce illegal logging; certifying production forests, reducing the risk of both domestic and international displacement; and numerous initiatives by the Government of Viet Nam and neighbouring countries relevant to reducing the risk of displacement (e.g. Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) to implement the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan).

 

[1] NRAP 2017

[2] MARD Decision No. 5414/2015/QD-BNN-TCLN on the approval of guidelines for the development of Provincial REDD+ Action Plans.

[3] Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Carbon Fund. Emission Reductions Program Document (ER-PD). Date of Submission: 5 January 2018


The design of Viet Nam National REDD+ Programme (2017)[1] and the policies and measures within it, has included processes to help reduce the risks of displacement, including assessment of the direct and indirect drivers of deforestation and degradation, clearly linking policies and measures to these drivers, consideration of land tenure arrangements, and incorporation of measures to reduce risks of displacement in the selection and design of policies and measures.

As part of the revision of the NRAP (2017), a study was carried out in 2016 to identify the various strategic considerations for REDD+ implementation [2]. This included analysis of priority drivers and barriers to address, and design of a preliminary set of policies and measures, linking them clearly to the various drivers and barriers to achieving the five activities under REDD+. The analysis focused on understanding the direct and indirect drivers and barriers causing forest and land use change, including consideration of a broad range of social, political, and economic factors, and how these factors are inter-linked.

The NRAP (2017) includes a number of policies and measures which can contribute to reducing displacement of greenhouse gas emissions from REDD+ activities in Viet Nam:

  • Build capacity and support implementation of Viet Nam’s Timber Legality Assurance System (VNTLAS) in order to implement the Voluntary Partnership Agreement with the European Union on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade of forest products (FLEGT).
  • Support development and operation of the monitoring system of the State and independent body to ensure compliance to Viet Nam’s VNTLAS.
  • Measures to strengthen inter-agency forest law enforcement (which could include cooperation with customs officials on illegal transboundary trade).
  • Assess socio-economic dynamics in hotspots of deforestation and forest degradation and continue the review of forest and forest land areas, to organize forest and forest land allocation, giving priority to individuals and households lacking land and productive land.
  • International cooperation measures including strengthening transboundary conservation in key conservation corridor landscapes e.g. between provinces in Viet Nam and neighbouring countries.

In addition, the assessment of co-benefits and risks related to displacement led to the identification of a series of measures to reduce these risks and enhance co-benefits. These have been considered and incorporated into the design of the NRAP and its policies and measures (see G.2.1.3).

 

[1] NRAP 2017, Decision No 419/QD-TTg dated 5/4/2017. Annex: Policies and Measures for REDD+ implementation for period of 2017 – 2020

[2] Richard McNally, Vu Tan Phuong, Nguyen The Chien, Pham Xuan Phuong, Nguyen Viet Dung (2016) Issues and options: support for the revision of Viet Nam’s National REDD+ Programme (NRAP), 2016-2020;


The National REDD+ Programme (2017)[1] includes a number of policies and measures that can contribute to reducing displacement of greenhouse gas emissions from REDD+ activities in Viet Nam through actions at the subnational level, considering livelihoods and demand for and supply of forest and agricultural products, such as:

  • Promotion of sustainable and deforestation-free agriculture and aquaculture, including through piloting and replicating sustainable and climate resilient models of production for aquaculture, coffee, rubber, cassava and other commodities;
  • Improving forest governance and livelihoods for people living near and in the forest, including supporting the development and replication of collaborative models for management of natural forests and continuation of employment and livelihoods support programmes for local people living near and in the forest in hotspots of deforestation and forest degradation;
  • Studying and piloting cooperation between forest owners, local people and private sectors on business models contributing to forest protection, through non-timber forest products and other forest environmental services.

In addition, the assessment of co-benefits and risks related to displacement led to the identification of a series of measures to reduce risks and enhance co-benefits of REDD+ at the subnational level, related to livelihoods and agriculture. These have been considered and incorporated into the design of the NRAP and its policies and measures (see Safeguard G.2.1.3).

 

[1] NRAP 2017, Decision No 419/QD-TTg dated 5/4/2017. Annex: Policies and Measures for REDD+ implementation for period of 2017 – 2020


The National REDD+ Programme (NRAP) (2017)[1] includes a number of policies and measures which can contribute to reducing the risks of displacement of greenhouse gas emissions from REDD+ activities taking place in Viet Nam. These include policies and measures related to Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT; see Safeguard G2.1.4) as well as through regional collaboration on transboundary displacement issues, including:

  • Cooperating and sharing experiences in REDD+ implementation through international meetings and partnerships;
  • Promoting cooperation with neighbouring countries to control illegal logging and trade and promote biodiversity conservation, such as through bilateral/multilateral cooperation agreements, forae for dialogue, and action plans.

In addition, the assessment of co-benefits and risks related to displacement led to the identification of some measures to reduce risks and enhance co-benefits of REDD+ relevant to regional cooperation policies and measures. These have been considered and incorporated into the design of the NRAP and its policies and measures (see Safeguard G.2.1.3).

  • Viet Nam and neighbouring countries, including Lao PDR propose to implement the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) to implement the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan.
  • Bilateral negotiations between Viet Nam and Lao PDR to ensure Lao PDR is able to meet Viet Nam’s VPA requirements on imported timber.
  • The EU-Viet Nam Joint Implementation Framework and Viet Nam Legal documentation and guidelines for implementation of Viet Nam’s Timber Legality Assurance System (VNTLAS) are expected to be developed with the integration of voluntary certification and VNTLAS national schemes, with support from GIZ.
  • UN-REDD support to: VPA negotiations and international review of initiatives and lessons learnt in making operational ‘disclosure of information’; assistance to FPD to develop a violations database and an imported timber list per risk category and protocol for classification; support to sharing of information between countries on legality requirements; and concepts for the Viet Nam organisation classification system.
  • Customs officials at Viet Nam’s major importing ports and border points are being provided training on implementation of timber import and export controls.
  • Chain-of-Custody (CoC) certification among large processing companies in Viet Nam, particularly in furniture manufacturing; as a result, increased number of certificates.
  • A number of international agreements committing Viet Nam to coordination on forest management and protection, law enforcement and trade.
  • Memorandums of understanding (MoUs) have been signed between Viet Nam Forest Protection Department and the Department of Forest Inspection, Lao PDR, on cooperation in forest protection, forest law enforcement, and preventing illegal trading and transport of timber, forest products and wildlife.
  • Negotiations among the provinces, which have border crossings in the NCC (Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Nghe An) and Ha Tinh province supported under UN-REDD.
  • The introduction of timber regulations by Lao PDR has already made significant impact on movement of logs and sawnwood into Viet Nam.

 

[1] NRAP 2017, Decision No 419/QD-TTg dated 5/4/2017. Annex: Policies and Measures for REDD+ implementation for period of 2017 – 2020

 


Viet Nam has systems for monitoring land use, land and forest cover change[1]. The National Forest Monitoring System (NFMS) will be the main source of information to monitor the implementation of REDD+ policies and measures and contribute to reducing the risks of displacement. The Forest Management Information System (FORMIS), the Government’s information system for the forestry sector, which constitutes the NFMS in Viet Nam, is expected, in the fullness of time, to provide information on Cancun safeguards (A – policy coherence), (C - knowledge and rights of local people and ethnic minorities), (E – natural forest, biodiversity, and social & environmental benefits), (F - reversals), and (G - displacement), in line with Viet Nam’s safeguards approach.

Viet Nam’s NFMS consists of three main elements[2]:

  • National Forest Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment Program (NFIMAP): Based on a series of Prime Minister’s Decisions, NFIMAP has been implemented by the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI) since 1991, in 5 year cycles, up to 2010. A National Forest Inventory and Statistics (NFIS) Project (see below) was implemented during the 2011-2016 cycle. The Program uses remote sensing in combination with ground surveys to monitor forest resources changes. Data from a systematic sample plot system were also collected in each cycle. The NFIMAP is currently under review for improvement and is expected to start again in 2016-2020.
  • National Forest Inventory and Statistics (NFIS) Projects: Also based on Prime Minister’s Decisions, several NFIS Projects have been carried out, including in 2011-2016. In the latest NFIS Project, there are two stages in generating the forest cover maps: (i) “Forest survey stage” - interpretation of remote sensing imagery in combination with ground surveys; (ii) “Forest statistics stage” - the forest inventory maps are used as inputs to overlay with the cadastral-based forest owner boundary maps to generate “forest statistics maps”). The forest statistics maps are printed out for each forest owner for verification and revised as necessary, i.e. using a participatory method. During the forest inventory stage, a system of sample plots is inventoried to estimate the mean volume stocks for each forest type. These sample plot data can also be used to estimate the mean carbon stocks in the above-ground pool for each forest type.
  • Annual Forest and Forestry Land Monitoring and Reporting Program (Program No. 32): This Program has been conducted by the Forest Protection Department since 2001 following the Directive No. 32/2000/CT-BNN-KL dated 27/03/2000[3]. Based on forest baseline maps of the latest NFIS Project, forest rangers collect information on changes in the communes under their responsibility, and then update these changes in a database. These updates are usually based on reports from forest owners and do not require remote sensing imagery or field surveys. Data are then aggregated through the Forest Protection Department system from commune to district to province up to the central level. The Program has generated a dataset on area of forest and forestry land, broken down by drivers, forest owners, forest functions, and administrative units. However, this dataset still has some limitations, including: (i) lack of data on forest stocks; and (ii) the data on area changes cannot be tracked spatially as they are not associated with maps.

 

[1] The Forestry Law (2017, effective 1 January 2019), Articles 32-36; Government Decree No. 23/2006/ND-CP, Articles 38-41; MARD Circular No. 34/2009/TT-BNNPTNT; MARD Circular No. 78/2017/TT-BNNPTNT.

[2] Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Carbon Fund. Emission Reductions Program Document (ER-PD). Date of Submission: 5 January 2018

[3] Directive No. 32/2000/CT-BNN-KL dated 27/03/2000

Description of outcomes of implementation of these processes: - Incidences of displacement recorded/reports submitted/management steps taken

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Table/figures from the REDD+ Information Portal on total net emission reductions/removals

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