Safeguard C Detail

Content with Safeguard C C1.1 times .


Due to the historical conditions of the country, the term “indigenous peoples” is not used in Viet Nam. In the context of Safeguard C, Viet Nam refers to “ethnic minorities” in place of “indigenous peoples.” Viet Nam is a unified nation of different ethnic groups[1]. An ethnic majority group in Viet Nam is defined as “an ethnic group with a population accounting for over 50% of the country's total population according to national population survey,” while an ethnic minority group is defined as “an ethnic group with a population smaller than that of the ethnic majority group within the territory of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam” [2]. These include “very low population” ethnic minority groups, defined as “ethnic minority groups with a population below 10,000 people”[3]. The ethnic majority group, the Kinh people, account for 86%of the population, while 53 ethnic minority groups account for 14%of the population. Ethnic minority groups are distributed throughout the country, mostly living in the mountainous regions. There are no ‘ethnic-specific’ areas in Viet Nam, or areas that may be referred to as “indigenous peoples’ territories” in other parts of the world[4].

Viet Nam defines members of local communities as households and individuals living in the same village, hamlet or similar population quarters, typically having shared traditions and customs, and/or shared descent[5]. Local communities in Viet Nam may comprise households and individuals from either the ethnic majority group or from ethnic minority groups.

 

[1] The Constitution of Viet Nam (2013), Article 5.

[2] Government Decree No. 05/2011/ND-CP, Article 4(2,3).

[3] Government Decree No. 05/2011/ND-CP, Article 4(6).

[4] Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (2011) Periodic Report of Viet Nam to International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (2011), pg.4.

[5] The Law on Forest Protection and Development (2004), Article 3(13); the Land Law (2013), Article 5(3); the Law on Forestry (2017, effective 1 January 2019), Article 2 (24).

 

The following section provides contextual information, showing the distribution of ethnic minority people across Viet Nam’s provinces and metropolitan areas. This includes the total number of ethnic minority people as well as the proportion living in identifed ‘ethnic minority areas’. Son La province had the highest number of ethnic minority people in 2015, at 1,006,312.

 

Number of ethnic minority people living in each province of Viet Nam, 2015[1]

Province / metropolitan area

Total number of ethnic minority persons

Ethnic minority people living in ethnic minority areas (persons)

Proportion of ethnic minority people living in ethnic minority areas (%)

Nationwide (63 provinces)

13,386,330

11,959,384

89.34

Forested provinces / metropolitan areas

Hà Giang

709663

691336

97.42

Cao Bằng

486318

486318

100

Bắc Kạn

2764

2764

100

Tuyên Quang

433832

401843

92.63

Lào Cai

447473

425561

95.1

Điện Biên

461359

449202

97.36

Lai Châu

358879

358879

100

Sơn La

1006312

979295

97.32

Yên Bái

445858

420273

94.26

Hoà Bình

625496

60004

95.93

Thái Nguyên

339036

268013

79.05

Lạng Sơn

641224

626472

97.7

Bắc Giang

22299

19101

85.66

Phú Thọ

234014

214803

91.79

Hà Nội

92223

44708

48.48

Quảng Ninh

148127

119434

80.63

Vĩnh Phúc

4973

41094

82.63

Ninh Bình

26015

21151

81.3

Thanh Hoá

653309

618359

94.65

Nghệ An

465709

443949

95.33

Hà Tỉnh

2586

1119

43.27

Quảng Bình

23534

21739

92.37

Quảng Trị

82497

79462

96.32

Thừa Thiên Huế

52599

48307

91.84

Quảng Nam

133472

125317

93.89

Quảng Ngãi

178876

174223

97.4

Bình Định

40707

35892

88.17

Phú Yên

57063

54229

95.03

Khánh Hoà

68779

60426

87.86

Ninh Thuận

137629

133556

97.04

Bình Thuận

89906

75927

84.45

Kon Tum

272152

257104

94.47

Gia Lai

650816

625981

96.18

Đắk Lắk

636491

588046

92.39

Đắk Nông

170363

153584

90.15

Lâm Đồng

318085

280147

88.07

Bình Phước

178551

149712

83.85

Tây Ninh

16382

1006

61.41

Bình Dương

61492

6436

10.47

Đồng Nai

179045

103366

57.73

Bà Rịa - Vũng Tàu

24712

9036

36.57

Hồ Chí Minh

450124

188084

41.78

Trà Vinh

334924

301743

90.09

An Giang

112575

90919

80.76

Kiên Giang

240011

163507

68.12

Hậu Giang

28948

15063

52.03

Sóc Trãng

472428

432002

91.44

Bạc Liêu

91634

58078

63.38

Cà Mau

40425

10061

24.89

Non-forest provinces / metropolitan areas

Vĩnh Long

27108

15753

58.11

Cần Thơ

37062

12365

33.36

 

[1] Committee for Ethnic Minority Affairs. 2016. Results of the survey on socio-economic situation of 53 ethnic minorities in 2015. http://cema.gov.vn/ket-qua-dieu-tra-thuc-trang-kt-xh-53-dan-toc-thieu-so-nam-2015.htm